Knowledge Base



Rane Halogen - Saving and Loading a Configuration File

HAL is an expert in room combining, paging and distributed audio systems. The software is designed to easily guide even novice users through what used to be complex tasks in just minutes. No intricate matrix mixing or presets are required for room combining and multi-zone paging. In this article, we will walk through saving and loading a configuration file with the Halogen software and why this is important.

Optimizing Windows for Audio Processing

While most new computers will perform well right out of the box, whether you buy a Mac, or a PC, you still have some work to do before you’ll see your new computer perform to its maximum potential. Recording and mixing music is one of the most demanding tasks you can ask of your computer, sometimes more taxing than professional graphics and video work. The suggestions below can be used to squeeze more speed, more tracks, and more plug-in power out of any computer and resolve some common problems with audi

The Importance of Room Acoustics

Nothing can make or break the sound of your performance, your rehearsal space, a recording venue or a home entertainment system more than room acoustics. You may have the very best instruments, speakers, amplifiers and recording equipment and you may have placed it all perfectly in your space, but if your performance/recording/listening room has poor acoustics, you're really facing an uphill battle. Luckily, there are a lot of things you can do to improve even the worst spaces.

No Such Thing as Peak Volts dBu

It is incorrect to state peak voltage levels in dBu. It is common but it is wrong. It is wrong because the definition of dBu is a voltage reference point equal to 0.775 Vrms (derived from the old power standard of 0 dBm, which equals 1 mW into 600 ?). Note that by definition it is an rms1 level, not a peak level. This guide will discuss how peak voltages are correctly stated.

LEED and the MA 4 Multichannel Amplifier

LEED® is an acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and a registered trademark of the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). It is a certification system for environmentally friendly (“green”) buildings. This guide will discuss how the MA4 contributes to energy efficiency.

Why DSP Boxes Set the Same Way Differ

A common pro audio problem is that if you input the same settings into different manufacturer’s programmable parametric EQ sections on processor boxes or control programs, they produce different results. This guide will clarify different types of bandwidths, give you testing tips, and explain the math behind DSP differences.

SCIN: Shield Current Induced Noise

RF is induced on a shielded balanced pair by at least three mechanisms: Imbalance in the magnetic coupling between the shield and the two signal conductors (Shield-current-induced noise), voltage gradients resulting from imbalance in the capacitances between the two signal conductors and the shield; and coupling of the electric field through tiny openings in the shield. In this guide, we’ll focus on the first of those mechanisms.

SCIN: Shield Current Induced Noise

RF is induced on a shielded balanced pair by at least three mechanisms: Imbalance in the magnetic coupling between the shield and the two signal conductors (Shield-current-induced noise), voltage gradients resulting from imbalance in the capacitances between the two signal conductors and the shield; and coupling of the electric field through tiny openings in the shield. In this guide, we’ll focus on the first of those mechanisms.

Pin 1 Revisited

In his landmark 1994 AES paper, Neil Muncy described a common equipment design error that allows current flowing on the shields of audio wiring to enter equipment and cause audible interference. He called this design error “the Pin 1 problem,” because it was an improper connection of the shield terminal, pin 1 in XLR connectors. This guide talks about what this is, and how to fix it.

Mixing for Three-Channel Reinforcement

Two and three channel sound reinforcement is a concept whose time has finally arrived. A well designed two or three channel system can blow the pants off of a monophonic system which uses significantly more powerful equipment. This guide will discuss how to configure this type of setup.

Acoustics & Sound Systems in the Contemporary Church

The contemporary church is built around communication — verbal, musical, and emotional — as well as worship. The minister communicates with the congregation by preaching, leading prayers, and announcing church activities. This guide will discuss how acoustics work, as well as how to get the best possible sound.

Audio in Houses of Worship

Audio is an essential element in any modern-day religious service. What is heard by the congregation is a combination of the acoustic qualities of the room and the performance of the audio system. This article will discuss how you can achieve crystal-clear sound in houses of worship.

Audio in Houses of Worship

Audio is an essential element in any modern-day religious service. What is heard by the congregation is a combination of the acoustic qualities of the room and the performance of the audio system. This article will discuss how you can achieve crystal-clear sound in houses of worship.

Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer

In 1976, Siegfried Linkwitz published his famous paper on active crossovers for non-coincident drivers. In it, he credited Russ Riley with contributing the idea that cascaded Butterworth filters met all Linkwitz's crossover requirements. Their efforts became known as the Linkwitz-Riley (LR) crossover alignment. This guide talks about what Linkwitz-Riley alignments are, and how they differ from traditional Butterworth designs.

SNMP: Simple? Network Management Protocol

Although some RS-232 connectors still cling desperately to audio hardware products around the world, for years Ethernet and the Internet Protocol (IP) have been replacing older serial communication formats as the connection of choice for monitoring and controlling audio as well as video, networking, and industrial equipment.This guide will discuss in further detail how SNMP works.

Linkwitz-Riley Crossovers: A Primer

In 1976, Siegfried Linkwitz published his famous paper on active crossovers for non-coincident drivers. In it, he credited Russ Riley with contributing the idea that cascaded Butterworth filters met all Linkwitz's crossover requirements. Their efforts became known as the Linkwitz-Riley (LR) crossover alignment. This guide talks about what Linkwitz-Riley alignments are, and ow they work.

Unwinding Distribution Transformers

What could be more mundane than the transformers and autoformers that are the backbone of audio distribution systems? This article will show you that there is a lot more going on with these chunks of iron and copper than you ever suspected. Learn why transformers are often the power bottleneck in distribution systems, learn how to interpret datasheets, believe or disbelieve manufacturers' claims, how to specify HV components, and how to setup HV systems to deliver the best possible power, fidelity, and band

Second-Order Digital Filters Done Right

Digital filters are capable of excellent performance when done right. If not, they fall prey to a number of problems. This guide will explore the number of issues that can occur with digital filters, and how to resolve them.

Dynamics Processors -- Technology & Applications

There are many ways to get that sound you want without spending a lot of money. In fact, many different types of dynamic processors offer simple controls to help you dial in that tone you're looking for. This guide aims to discuss different types of dynamics processors, how they work, and how they can be used effectively.

Perfect-Q™, the Next Step in Graphic EQ Design

The quest for absolute truth in graphic equalizer slider position has a long history and Rane helps with a giant step forward. Using advanced DSP algorithms, Rane Corporation introduced an entirely new generation of graphic equalizers that realize the dream of having the output magnitude response correspond exactly to the front panel settings. This guide talks about what this technology is, and what its advantages are.

Grounding and Shielding Audio Devices

Now that the Audio Engineering Society has adopted the "pin 2 is hot" standard, the question of what to do with pin 1 is being addressed. A recommended practices document is being created covering interconnection of professional audio equipment. This guide will discuss the pin 1 problem, and how to have a clear, noise-free signal.

Interfacing Audio and POTS

In the USA, in spite of all the hoopla about digital-this, digital-that and fiber-optic-whatever, the truth is that many small commercial paging and music-on-hold applications still involve interfacing with the plain old telephone service, or "POTS". (By contrast, if you work in the EU business place, then you will rarely run into POTS, since it has almost all been converted to ISDN.) Meanwhile, back in the USA: if you are lucky, the telephone system you get to work with will provide a line-level auxiliary

Interfacing AES3 and S/PDIF

Mainstream digital audio dates from the introduction of the compact disc in the early '80s, making it about twenty years old. Today two serial interfaces coexist: AES3 (aka AES/EBU) for professional use and S/PDIF for consumer products. Simple low-cost passive conversion between them is possible -- even easy -- but it is also filled with cautions. The old rule that direct connection between AES/EBU and S/PDIF equipment is bad practice is relaxed today with new receiver chips tolerant to either interface. Th

A Bessel Filter Crossover, and Its Relation to Others

One of the ways that a crossover may be constructed from a Bessel low-pass filter employs the standard low-pass to high-pass transformation. Various frequency normalizations can be chosen for best magnitude and polar response, although the linear phase approximation in the passband of the low-pass is not maintained at higher frequencies. This guide will walk about what a Bessel Crossover is, and explain the differences between high- and low-pass filters.

Evolution of the DJ Crossfader

The DJ mixer crossfader was originally developed as a control for implementing smooth fades from one program source to another, but where did the idea come from? This guide will provide you with the interesting history behind one of the most-used DJ tools.

Audio Specifications

Objectively comparing pro audio signal processing products is often impossible. Missing on too many data sheets are the conditions used to obtain the published data. Audio specifications come with conditions. Tests are not performed in a vacuum with random parameters. They are conducted using rigorous procedures and the conditions must be stated along with the test results. This guide introduces the classic audio tests used to characterize audio performance. It describes each test and the conditions necessa

Introduction to Speech Reinforcement with Conferencing

Large conference rooms require speech reinforcement so people at all locations can adequately hear each other. To perform speech reinforcement without acoustic feedback is difficult, add conferencing and it becomes complex. This guide gives insight into acoustic proprieties of speech reinforcement and applications.

Digital Dharma of Audio A/D Converters

Among the many definitions for the wonderful word "dharma" is the essential function or nature of a thing. This guide will explain the essential function or nature of audio analog-to-digital (A/D) converters.

Constant-Voltage Audio Distribution Systems

Constant-voltage is the common name given to a general practice begun in the late 1920s and early 1930s (becoming a U.S. standard in 1949) governing the interface between power amplifiers and loudspeakers used in distributed sound systems. Installations employing ceiling-mounted loudspeakers, such as offices, restaurants and schools are examples of distributed sound systems. This guide will talk about what constant voltage is and why it matters

Setting Sound System Level Controls

Correctly setting a sound system's gain structure is one of the most important contributors to creating an excellent sounding system. Conversely, an improperly set gain structure is one of the leading contributors to bad sounding systems. The cost of the system is secondary to proper setup. The most expensive system set wrong never performs up to the level of a correctly set inexpensive system. Setting all the various level controls is not difficult; however, it remains a very misunderstood topic. This guid

Signal Processing Fundamentals

In space, no one can hear you scream ... because there is no air or other medium for sound to travel. Sound needs a medium; an intervening substance through which it can travel from point to point; it must be carried on something. That something can be solid, liquid or gas. How do we create sound, and how do we capture sound? Hopefully by the end of this guide you will have a better understanding!

Limiters Unlimited

Limiters are in the protection business, limiting audio systems to safe levels. These limits protect loudspeakers, protect the audio signal from clipping, protect the neighbors, and protect ears. This guide covers what limiters are and how they work.

Practical Line-Driving Current Requirements

Successfully driving audio lines requires good line drivers. A fact no one argues. What constitutes a good line driver, however, encourages great debate. This note examines the technical problems involved in driving audio lines, and sets down useful guidelines for successful line drivers. Of particular concern is identifying realistic requirements. Separating relevance from truth, in line drivers. That is, while it may betrue that one line driver's performance exceeds another; is this extra capacity relevan

Unity Gain and Impedance Matching: Strange Bedfellows

This note discusses the pitfalls (often subtle) of our industry's failure to define and standardize what "unity gain" means, and the conditions necessary to measure it. It further discusses how people improperly use one piece of misinformation (impedance matching) to correct for this lack of standardization. All done, without knowing discrepancies exist between different pieces of equipment, and without knowing impedance matching is unnecessary, signal degrading, and wasteful. This Note identifies and expla

Operator Adjustable Equalizers: An Overview

This article presents an overview of operator adjustable equalizers in the professional audio industry. The term "operator adjustable equalizers" is no doubt a bit vague and cumbersome. For this, the author apologizes. Needed was a term to differentiate between fixed equalizers and variable equalizers. What types of variable equalizers exist? Why so many? Which one is best? What type of circuits prevail? What kind of filters? Who makes what? Hopefully, the answers lie within these pages, but first, a little

Cost-Effective Noise Masking Systems

As the popularity of noise masking systems grows, so too does the cost of the equipment to implement it. However, like other sound system needs, Rane products can contribute a great deal to the cost-effectiveness of noise masking systems without sacrificing reliability or operational requirements. The purpose of this note is to introduce noise masking designers to Rane products useful in their craft.

Exposing Equalizer Mythology

Let's face it: Equalizers can be confusing. What does it mean to combine a filter? Is minimum phase behavior and important criteria to keep in mind when buying an equalizer? Not to fear. This article exposes and debunks some of the most popular myths regarding equalizers.

Sound System Interconnection

Almost all cases of noise can be traced directly to ground loops, grounding or lack thereof. Noise typically stems from the continual and perpetual difficulty of hooking up audio equipment. This article discusses the best way to do so.

Why Not Wye?

A wye-connector used to split a signal into two lines is being used properly; a wye-connector used to mix two signals into one is being abused and may even damage the equipment involved. This article talks about how to properly use (or not use) wye-connectors.

The SM26S Swiss Army Mixer

Everyone needs a line level mixer. It has to be small, and cheap, and versatile. It has to be able to mix split, distribute, level match, amplify, attenuate and pan -- all without adding any distortion or noise whatsoever. The SM26S Splitter / Mixer is all that and more.

Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers

Rane pioneered the Constant-Q graphic equalizer, allowing true 1/3-octave bandwidth control at all slider positions for more accurate adjustments. This article discusses in detail the Constant-Q Graphic Equalizers.

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